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Sensors Sensors are devices that alter the state under the action of physical quantity, can provide directly or indirectly a signal that indicates the magnitude. When working directly converting a form of indifferent power, they are called transducers, indirect operation of the alter its characteristics, such as resistance, capacitance or inductance, under action of a quantity in proportion.
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The sensor signal can be used to detect and rectify deviations in control systems that repeatedly are associated with the open loop control system. Measured variables can be classified as analog, digital or binary. Some key features of the sensors are: linearity and performance range. Linearity ratio generated corresponding to the physical quantity signal and the higher the lower is the linearity error. And the range of operation corresponds to the range of the sensor, i.
Photo Couplers Photo coupler is a component formed by a LED and photo transistor in a circuit for the purpose of transferring information between two electric circuits using light without electrical contact between the circuits. Applying a voltage to the LED pin, the light polarizes the base of the internal photo transistor thus leads to circulate current through another electrically isolated circuit.
There are several types of couplers photo, some with two LEDs and two photo transistors, others more complex, containing many components inside the printed circuit . Directional Valves The directional valves are extremely important components in a pneumatic circuit. They regulate, block, direct, restrict the pressure and flow of compressed air or various fluids.
Essential elements in the pneumatic circuits and have the function of directing the air to perform a certain task. According to the application there is the need for a particular type of valve, with variations related to the type of drive electric, pneumatic, mechanical or muscle.
They are also responsible for directing the air flow to the pneumatic system determined working condition . Pneumatic The pneumatic corresponds to the use of compressed air as power means. There are several ways to explain what is pneumatic, but basically, observing the current applications, pneumatics is the technique of turning the pressure and the movement of air in mechanical movements.
Compressed air generation processes to final equipment will be presented in this section. Air Compressors Compressor is the device that converts the mechanical energy, an electric motor or combustion in potential energy of compressed air .
The main types of compressors are rotary and reciprocal. Within the framework of reciprocal include piston compressors and diaphragm; the structure of the rotary, screw compressors and vane .
The single stage piston compressor shown in figure 1, works as the piston makes the downward motion creating a vacuum inside the piston shirt, forcing the atmospheric air to fill the internal volume of the piston shirt, when the piston makes the opposite movement, the displacement of the air causes the check valve closes, thus forcing the air to move to the compressed air reservoir . Figure 1. Single-Stage Piston Compressor The dual-stage piston compressor shown in figure 2, when the working air from the atmosphere is received and sent by two compression stages, and between the air is cooled to remove excess heat created by friction from the piston .
Figure 2. Dual-stage piston Compressor The diaphragm compressor illustrated in figure 3, has the function similar to the reciprocating compressor, however, the atmospheric air does not contact with the mechanical parts of the piston, causing the generated compressed air have fewer impurities . The compressor straw, illustrated in figure 4 generates a centripetal force, promoting the displacement of the vanes, and a vacuum.
This compressor has as main characteristic cause high air volume capaciwith low pressure . Figure 3. Diaphragm Compressor Figure 4. Compressor Vane The screw compressor shown in figure 5, acts through the rotary movement of two screws, one concave and one convex, so that atmospheric air is brought into its interior. Its main features are: high performance, large flow, continuous pressure and the absence of oil .
Figure 5. Screw Compressor 3. Air Reservoir The air tank has the function of eliminating the oscillations in the pressure provided by the compressor and help reduce the compressed air temperature before the air dryer. Air tanks follow, in Brazil, the NR standard.
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According to NR items required in a compressed air reservoir are: relief valve, pressure gauge, inspection hatch, drain the condensate . Treatment of Compressed Air The quality of air used is the most important factor for the proper functioning of the filtration equipment.
The compressed atmospheric air, has in its composition a variety of particles of impurities and humidity, after compression of the air, these particles added to the concentrate and oil particles in amounts which vary according to the type of compressor used.
This mixture makes the air unfit for use without proper filtration. Each application has an ideal level of filtering, which should ensure the proper functioning of equipment to be used. Also, the better the filtration, better performance and higher reliability and possibilities to make the most of the life of the equipment, while minimizing interruptions for maintenance. Most of these interruptions are related to locking valves. Excess moisture also causes oxidation air pipe, generating more impurities in system .
Quality assurance should be considered for the design of a pneumatic system. The ISO standard refers to the amount of impurities and contaminants provides a specific degree recommended for typical industrial applications, as shown in Table 1. Table 1. Number of Impurities Contaminants The condensate separator filter that has the function to remove the condensed water from the air line must be installed on the spot with higher pressure and lower temperature, as far as possible from the compressor.
Since the line filter has the function of removing oil, water and particulate matter through the filter element that allows the blocking fine particles is essential for all sorts of compressed air applications.
The filter odor remover has the function of eliminating odors in the air outlet through an activated carbon element, applied in packaging processes and breathing systems for odor removal . Figure 6 illustrates the internal construction of the condensate eliminator filter. Figure 6. Line Filter with Automatic Drain The compressed air lubrication no longer needs to be applied in modern pneumatic equipment, as they are already provided a pre lubrication throughout its service life.
Non-lubricated systems have some advantages, such as hygiene, cleanliness and cost savings of lubrication equipment, thus providing a healthy and safe working environment. For cases that require lubrication, which has a lubricator provides a mixed oil mist to the air flow to reach the equipment.
If the oil reaches devices that do not require lubrication it dissolves permanent grease nullifying their property, requiring, therefore, definitely lubrication .
Figure 7 illustrates the internal line lubricator system.
Figure 7. Oilers pneumatic system The pressure regulator, as illustrated in figure 8, is an indispensable equipment for any application in which use compressed air as an energy source, their basic functions are smooth and stabilize the air pressure . Figure 8. Pressure Regulator The drain has the function of removing water and impurities from the compressed air network. In the past, the drains were actuated manually, but the lack of serious care problems entailed in pneumatic systems.
Currently, automatic drains are used, as shown in figure 9, which are responsible for draining condensate from compressed air systems without the assistance of an operator. They are basically used two types of automatic drain: automatic drain for float and motorized automatic drain.
Figure 9. Functional System automatic drain Automatic drain by float: an opening and closing valve is actuated by a float float. When the drain tank is full, the float rises and allows the passage of water flow. Experiment Details The case study was necessary to obtain confirmation of the research with the assembly of the practical test.
A prototype was developed to demonstrate the practical data to the study of theoretical data. Base Material The polypropylene corresponds to a semicrystalline thermoplastic, low cost, using a common material used in various applications, with resistance characteristics and light weight, thus meeting the ergonomics standards.
It contains an entry for air to the compressor, thus dividing the required pressures for each of the pneumatic scheme using two pressure regulators filters to the sealing portion and leak test. It contains two pneumatic actuators to seal the piece, ensuring the sealing of the two ends, after the test, pneumatic actuators return to normal position.
The pneumatic prototype design was developed in order to simulate leaks in parts and adjust the pneumatic scheme developed. It was designed in SolidWorks software in 2D and 3D format, with dimensional for didactic use, using automation devices downloadd through sponsorships and personally. Figure 10 illustrates the mechanical design of the prototype. Figure Pneumatic Prototype Design Figure Pneumatic Scheme 4.
It has the function of monitoring the pressure by sending the data to the controller, thus obtaining the necessary feedback from the pressure according to the application. The switch contains two digital outputs and one analog, display four digits in red and green colors.
Flow Switches Prototype The flow meter is used in the design of PFMV5 series SMC Pneumatics manufacturer and corresponds to a flow sensor with a short response time and which can be mounted in a small physical space. The principle of operation of the switch used in the prototype corresponds to the variation of temperature according to the movement of air.
The flow switch has four internal resistors Ra, Ru, Rh and Rd The resistor Ra has the function of measuring the ambient temperature. Ru has the function of measuring the temperature; Rh perform symmetric measurement between resistors as the air movement; Rd and the resistance measured at low temperature .
Figure 12 shows two examples, one with the flow and without moving the other with the moving stream. The Flow of Air Inside the Switch The output curve shown in figure 13 corresponds to a non-linear response, stating the output voltage from the instantaneous flow.
Flow Regulator The prototype flow regulator manufactured by SMC Pneumatics company AS series, has the function of controlling the flow of air in the advance and retreat of the actuators and also to simulate the test of the leak.
There are two types used in flow regulation: The inlet flow regulators used on double acting actuators, which cause movements "in leaps.
Thus, the movement is compromised, since the output throughput is larger than the entrance, a counter pressure is generated for a uniform motion is guaranteed. The output flow regulation ensures the pressure, because it restricts the amount of air coming out, creating a sort of "air mattress" in the actuator.
You can also adjust the output to the valve exhaust, using a silencer with flow regulation, this application reduces the cost of the project, it employs two products in one body, moreover, brings speed control closer to the operator, because the actuators are often less accessible sites of the valves. Filter Pressure Regulator The prototype of the throttle filter, also manufactured by SMC Pneumatics AW series, has the function of filtering the air removing impurities and controlling the pressure by the need of the application, the prototype was used two regulators filters, the first filter regulator was used in order to control the pressure of the actuators, and the second filter regulator was used in order to control the test pressure.
Pneumatic Actuator The actuators can be classified in the following ways: linear cylinders; compact; sliding or rotating tables; and actuators claw type tweezers. As its internal construction its operation can be single or double action.
This functioning as access point, connected to the D3 for serial data transmission and the will have the function of mediating the communication SCL pin connected to the D4 for sync, also serial. With the pinout having been In order to read the presence sensor, it is necessary to defined, they must be declared in programming. Then, it is observed function that will be responsible for reading the digital whether the components of each system were performing pin, reading is with two values, 1 or 0.
A decision making is done according to the value read by the NodeMCU, actions will be defined through a www.
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In this case, the value that interests Like the NodeMCU, the Wemos D1 mini runs us is 1, since it indicates that a presence has been 3. Therefore, the addition of a identified. And it is based on this value, that the transistor circuit allows the activation of relay of 5 conditional structure will perform two actions.
The transistor acts as a switch powered by 5V, In order for the welcome message to be displayed, it is voltage that can be obtained through the board itself necessary to establish a communication between the through the pin VIN or VCC. When the signal the I2C protocol and also the definition of the pins that sent by the board is high, ie 3.
The resistors are calculated of the presence sensor is set to 1.
As the sensor trimpot precisely to make possible the polarization of the has been set. Sending notification to your smartphone through The electric lock requires a power supply of 12 Blynk takes place in two steps.
The first step is to install V and 2 A. The Wemoscan not supply the lock and Blynk App on your smartphone, in this application we therefore an external source is used. The interaction will develop a secondary application that will send a between the lock and the Wemos is done through the notification if someone is detected.
Each application that relay module. The contacts used in the NO normally is developed in the Blynk App, receives an access key. In this is the positive part communication between the NodeMCU and the Blynk of the power supply that connects the lock. And the App. To connect the magnetic sensor to the Wemos D1 mini, we need to add a resistor so as not to short-circuit System Programming Logic 2 the microcontroller.
Insertion of the resistor is necessary To establish communication between the Wemos to reverse the input. Without the drive, the 0 volt signal and the Application will require the creation of arrives at the GPIO input by the resistor. The WebServer activated, the 3.
With this we use pin D3 for the magnetic sensor processing and responding to requests made by the according to Figure 2. The port sensor will function as a digital input sending signals, depending on the state of the port, this sensor works as an NF normally closed switch, ie if the sensor contacts are close the signal sent to the Wemos will be 3.
If the sensor contacts are distant the signal sent will be 0 indicating only that the status of Fig.
Source: Author Responsible for triggering the lock through the The relay module used in this project is nothing application, wemos functions as a server waiting for the more than a shield to be attached to the mini D1, this requested requests from the client, these requests will be shield has a circuit in its bottom that allows interaction made by creating a URL, in the case of the project, two as the D1 mini without complications.
In the application, the web pages will be represented by a button represented by an icon of an open lock if the relay is not activated, and a closed lock icon if relay is activated according to Figure 3.
For this to be Fig. In the project in question, a router will be functioning as access point, to have access to the router is Analysis and discussion of results necessary to know the name and password of the same. During the development of the project, there were Thus, with all the devices connecting to the same access difficulties that were already foreseen, among them, we point, it is possible to establish a communication between had the first one that was with regard to the notification, all of them.
Initially, it had been planned that the smartphone through the Blynk App only if a presence notification was from the door application itself. For has been detected, in this case the Blynk App will this, during the development of the application would be trigger a notification on the smartphone home screen added an extension called TaifuNotification, which notifying the user of the presence.
However, it Next, the user will open the Smart Port 1. On your main screen notification if the application was running or sending we will find two buttons, one for port control and the some command to notify. The idea is With this, we looked for other alternatives, like using that when receiving the notification the user opens the Telegram message application.It contains an entry for air to the compressor, thus dividing the required pressures for each of the pneumatic scheme using two pressure regulators filters to the sealing portion and leak test.
Editora Saraiva, Concluding this study, the results of the PBL efficiency measurement are presented as well as improvement recommendation for next projects. During the development of the project, there were Thus, with all the devices connecting to the same access difficulties that were already foreseen, among them, we point, it is possible to establish a communication between had the first one that was with regard to the notification, all of them.
Editora Novatec, Neste projeto, foi usado o modelo 2N Psicologia Cognitiva. Tests and Results In the final prototype testing we found that the work of the case study obtained positive results expected by the study bibliography.
Essential elements in the pneumatic circuits and have the function of directing the air to perform a certain task.