CELLULE GRAETZEL PDF

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CELLULE GRAETZEL PDF - L'invention concerne une nouvelle cellule Graetzel ( ou DSSC: une cellule solaire sensibilisée par un colorant) dotée d'un système. I would like to thank all the members of the “Grätzel group” and the chemistry . développement de cellules solaires solides organiques (solid-state solar device . Michael Graetzel. Global Energy [email protected] .. Premier prototype de cellule Publication dans Nature Production pilote des.


Cellule Graetzel Pdf

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Lecture by Michael Graetzel on the occasion of his admission as a . citée ca 20' fois. Première publication Premier prototype de cellule. Curriculum Vitae and Scientific Profile of Professor Michael Grätzel. 1. “ Développement d'un nouveau type de cellules solaires basées sur des films. Request PDF on ResearchGate | Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells | The utilisés comme couche de transport de trous dans les cellules solaires organiques.

Yeh, S. Paracchino, V. Laporte, K. Sivula, M. Janssen, D. Mitzi and E. H Delcamp, A. Yella, T. Holcombe, and M.

Dye-sensitized solar cell

Heo, S. Im, J. Noh, T. Mandal, Ch. Lim J. Chang, Y.

J Kim, A. Sarkar, Md. Nazeeruddin, M. Seok, Efficient inorganic—organic hybrid heterojunctionsolar cells containing perovskite compound and polymeric hole conductors, Nature Photonics , 7, Brillet, J. Yum, M. Cornuz, T. Hisatomi, R. Solarska, J. Augustynski, M. Burschka, N.

Pellet, S. Moon, R. Humphry-Baker, P.

Gao1, M K. Nazeeruddin1 and M. Xing, N. Mathews, S. Sun, S. Lim, Y. Lam, M. Mhaisalkar, T. Warren, K. Dotan ,C.

Leroy, M. Cornuz F. Stellacci, C.

Rothschild and M. Mathew, A. Yella, P, Gao, R. Humphry-Baker, B. Curchod, N.

Dye-sensitized solar cell

Due to their "depth" in the nanostructure there is a very high chance that a photon will be absorbed, and the dyes are very effective at converting them to electrons. Most of the small losses that do exist in DSSC's are due to conduction losses in the TiO2 and the clear electrode, or optical losses in the front electrode.

The quantum efficiency of traditional designs vary, depending on their thickness, but are about the same as the DSSC. In theory, the maximum voltage generated by such a cell is simply the difference between the quasi- Fermi level of the TiO2 and the redox potential of the electrolyte, about 0. That is, if an illuminated DSSC is connected to a voltmeter in an "open circuit", it would read about 0.

This is a fairly small difference, so real-world differences are dominated by current production, Jsc. Although the dye is highly efficient at converting absorbed photons into free electrons in the TiO2, only photons absorbed by the dye ultimately produce current. The rate of photon absorption depends upon the absorption spectrum of the sensitized TiO2 layer and upon the solar flux spectrum. The overlap between these two spectra determines the maximum possible photocurrent.

Typically used dye molecules generally have poorer absorption in the red part of the spectrum compared to silicon, which means that fewer of the photons in sunlight are usable for current generation.

In air infiltration of the commonly-used amorphous Spiro-MeOTAD hole-transport layer was identified as the primary cause of the degradation, rather than oxidation.

The damage could be avoided by the addition of an appropriate barrier. This makes DSSCs attractive as a replacement for existing technologies in "low density" applications like rooftop solar collectors, where the mechanical robustness and light weight of the glass-less collector is a major advantage.

They may not be as attractive for large-scale deployments where higher-cost higher-efficiency cells are more viable, but even small increases in the DSSC conversion efficiency might make them suitable for some of these roles as well.

There is another area where DSSCs are particularly attractive. The process of injecting an electron directly into the TiO2 is qualitatively different from that occurring in a traditional cell, where the electron is "promoted" within the original crystal. In theory, given low rates of production, the high-energy electron in the silicon could re-combine with its own hole, giving off a photon or other form of energy which does not result in current being generated.

Although this particular case may not be common, it is fairly easy for an electron generated by another atom to combine with a hole left behind in a previous photoexcitation. Although it is energetically possible for the electron to recombine back into the dye, the rate at which this occurs is quite slow compared to the rate that the dye regains an electron from the surrounding electrolyte. Recombination directly from the TiO2 to species in the electrolyte is also possible although, again, for optimized devices this reaction is rather slow.

As a result of these favorable "differential kinetics", DSSCs work even in low-light conditions. DSSCs are therefore able to work under cloudy skies and non-direct sunlight, whereas traditional designs would suffer a "cutout" at some lower limit of illumination, when charge carrier mobility is low and recombination becomes a major issue. The cutoff is so low they are even being proposed for indoor use, collecting energy for small devices from the lights in the house. In any semiconductor, increasing temperature will promote some electrons into the conduction band "mechanically".

The fragility of traditional silicon cells requires them to be protected from the elements, typically by encasing them in a glass box similar to a greenhouse , with a metal backing for strength. Such systems suffer noticeable decreases in efficiency as the cells heat up internally. DSSCs are normally built with only a thin layer of conductive plastic on the front layer, allowing them to radiate away heat much easier, and therefore operate at lower internal temperatures.

Disadvantages[ edit ] The major disadvantage to the DSSC design is the use of the liquid electrolyte, which has temperature stability problems. At low temperatures the electrolyte can freeze, halting power production and potentially leading to physical damage.

Higher temperatures cause the liquid to expand, making sealing the panels a serious problem.

Another disadvantage is that costly ruthenium dye , platinum catalyst and conducting glass or plastic contact are needed to produce a DSSC. A third major drawback is that the electrolyte solution contains volatile organic compounds or VOC's , solvents which must be carefully sealed as they are hazardous to human health and the environment. This, along with the fact that the solvents permeate plastics, has precluded large-scale outdoor application and integration into flexible structure.

Although the dye is highly efficient at converting absorbed photons into free electrons in the TiO2, only photons absorbed by the dye ultimately produce current.

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The rate of photon absorption depends upon the absorption spectrum of the sensitized TiO2 layer and upon the solar flux spectrum. The overlap between these two spectra determines the maximum possible photocurrent. Typically used dye molecules generally have poorer absorption in the red part of the spectrum compared to silicon, which means that fewer of the photons in sunlight are usable for current generation. In air infiltration of the commonly-used amorphous Spiro-MeOTAD hole-transport layer was identified as the primary cause of the degradation, rather than oxidation.

Cellule solaire à pigment photosensible

The damage could be avoided by the addition of an appropriate barrier. This makes DSSCs attractive as a replacement for existing technologies in "low density" applications like rooftop solar collectors, where the mechanical robustness and light weight of the glass-less collector is a major advantage. They may not be as attractive for large-scale deployments where higher-cost higher-efficiency cells are more viable, but even small increases in the DSSC conversion efficiency might make them suitable for some of these roles as well.

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There is another area where DSSCs are particularly attractive. The process of injecting an electron directly into the TiO2 is qualitatively different from that occurring in a traditional cell, where the electron is "promoted" within the original crystal. In theory, given low rates of production, the high-energy electron in the silicon could re-combine with its own hole, giving off a photon or other form of energy which does not result in current being generated.

Although this particular case may not be common, it is fairly easy for an electron generated by another atom to combine with a hole left behind in a previous photoexcitation. Although it is energetically possible for the electron to recombine back into the dye, the rate at which this occurs is quite slow compared to the rate that the dye regains an electron from the surrounding electrolyte. Recombination directly from the TiO2 to species in the electrolyte is also possible although, again, for optimized devices this reaction is rather slow.

As a result of these favorable "differential kinetics", DSSCs work even in low-light conditions. DSSCs are therefore able to work under cloudy skies and non-direct sunlight, whereas traditional designs would suffer a "cutout" at some lower limit of illumination, when charge carrier mobility is low and recombination becomes a major issue. The cutoff is so low they are even being proposed for indoor use, collecting energy for small devices from the lights in the house.

In any semiconductor, increasing temperature will promote some electrons into the conduction band "mechanically". The fragility of traditional silicon cells requires them to be protected from the elements, typically by encasing them in a glass box similar to a greenhouse , with a metal backing for strength.

Such systems suffer noticeable decreases in efficiency as the cells heat up internally. DSSCs are normally built with only a thin layer of conductive plastic on the front layer, allowing them to radiate away heat much easier, and therefore operate at lower internal temperatures.

Disadvantages[ edit ] The major disadvantage to the DSSC design is the use of the liquid electrolyte, which has temperature stability problems. At low temperatures the electrolyte can freeze, halting power production and potentially leading to physical damage.

Higher temperatures cause the liquid to expand, making sealing the panels a serious problem.

Another disadvantage is that costly ruthenium dye , platinum catalyst and conducting glass or plastic contact are needed to produce a DSSC. A third major drawback is that the electrolyte solution contains volatile organic compounds or VOC's , solvents which must be carefully sealed as they are hazardous to human health and the environment.

This, along with the fact that the solvents permeate plastics, has precluded large-scale outdoor application and integration into flexible structure. Recent experiments using solidified melted salts have shown some promise, but currently suffer from higher degradation during continued operation, and are not flexible.

Photocathodes p-DSCs operate in an inverse mode compared to the conventional n-DSC, where dye-excitation is followed by rapid electron transfer from a p-type semiconductor to the dye dye-sensitized hole injection, instead of electron injection. A standard tandem cell consists of one n-DSC and one p-DSC in a simple sandwich configuration with an intermediate electrolyte layer.

Thus, photocurrent matching is very important for the construction of highly efficient tandem pn-DSCs. However, unlike n-DSCs, fast charge recombination following dye-sensitized hole injection usually resulted in low photocurrents in p-DSC and thus hampered the efficiency of the overall device.

Researchers have found that using dyes comprising a perylenemonoimide PMI as the acceptor and an oligothiophene coupled to triphenylamine as the donor greatly improve the performance of p-DSC by reducing charge recombination rate following dye-sensitized hole injection.Li, P.

Seo, T. Abate, A. In any semiconductor, increasing temperature will promote some electrons into the conduction band "mechanically". Holcombe, and M. In this case the liquid electrolyte is replaced by one of several solid hole conducting materials. On 17 October , claimed the production of the first commercial grade dye sensitised thin films. Recombination directly from the TiO2 to species in the electrolyte is also possible although, again, for optimized devices this reaction is rather slow.