This book in your hand is an easy way to learn Urdu through English. A native speaker of English language is presumably aware of at least the basics of English. Documents Similar To Learn resspocobarte.ml Learn to Read Urdu. Uploaded by. Ronnan Hussain. an Introduction to Urdu Script. Uploaded by. nadim siddiqui. urdu. time you open the pages of See You At The Top. The dust jacket is different, and to start with "The End" is certainly d Learn hindi through telugu pdf books.
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Was searching for a good book to learn Urdu from a long time. Now got it! I am trying to learn Urdu through internet. Can anyone please help me in this regardd. You are commenting using your WordPress. You are commenting using your Google account.
You are commenting using your Twitter account. You are commenting using your Facebook account. Notify me of new comments via email. Syed Fawaz Ahmed. Skip to content. Learn URDU, the easy way! Posted on February 16, by syedfawaz Assalamalekum ORB, I was always keen to study urdu which i did not learn in my childhood. Sticky Note Help.
Typewriter Tool. Share this: Like this: Like Loading About syedfawaz I am Syed Fawaz Ahmed. Engineer by profession, Artist at heart. I have done my Engineering in Information Science in M. Ramaiah Institute of Technology You can reach me at syedfawaz gmail. This entry was posted in Islam. Bookmark the permalink. Manzoor Elahi says: February 21, at 9: Assalamalekum ORB, Fawaz bhai, I always wanted to learn urdu by myself, this initiative from you is really good, Allah bless you for this good deed.
Babitha says: July 16, at 2: Assalamalekum, My mother tongue is tamil but I want to learn urdu Please help me. September 23, at 7: September 23, at Aslkm Br. Syed, I dont know pukhto and I dont know how to help you. July 15, at 1: July 18, at 3: Md Imteyaz Khan says: January 11, at March 20, at 7: Wlkmaslm Br. Manaarah, Alhamdulillah I have added a part of these books.
Jazakallah Fawaz. March 21, at Wa feeka baarakallah. Jameela Junaid says: August 7, at 5: Muhammad Anisul Islam says: April 9, at 8: April 9, at Prakhar Misra says: April 25, at 3: July 1, at 2: I am just beginning to start to learn Urdu — this site is great. July 1, at 9: Jazakallah Brother Adam. Inshallah I will update the site with new material soon Fawaz. July 19, at 1: July 21, at 5: Dear Brother Kesav, I will keep in touch with you, which city do you belong to?
July 23, at 2: July 23, at 4: Aslkm Brother Sameer, Jazakallah for the kind words. Hope that helps Remember in Duas. Ahamadhi Fathima says: October 19, at 2: Remember me in ur duas. Allah hafiz.
October 19, at Wlkmaslm Sis Fathima, Jazakallah for the kind words. October 23, at 1: Assalamu Alaikum Bhaiya. Jazakallah Khair Fathima. August 18, at August 19, at Sunil says: August 30, at 8: If possible e mail me some basic Urdu Learning Books, regards, Sunil.
September 1, at Hi Sunil, I am working on uploading new Urdu Learning Books, especially for someone who has no knowledge about the arabic alphabets.
Will keep you updated. September 2, at Regards, Sunil. TRS says: September 5, at Mohammed hashim says: September 10, at Ajju says: September 20, at 5: September 21, at September 26, at 9: September 28, at 8: October 7, at Lyn Petersen says: October 22, at 3: October 23, at 6: Hi Lyn, Let me introduce you Mohammed Khalid.
Regards Fawaz. October 24, at October 25, at Noor, Jazakallah for the kind words. Inshallah will add new books. Pls remember me in your duas. Yasmeen Basheer says: October 27, at Wlkmaslm Sis. November 2, at 5: November 6, at 5: Aslkm Sis. Rafeeq Ahmed says: February 12, at Shukran Jazeelan Fawaz bhai, I heard this nazam from my father in my chilhood.
February 18, at Aslkm Rafeeq Bhai, Thanks. Please remember me in your duas.
November 19, at Wlkmaslm Furqan Bhai, Working on the second book, Inshallah will update soon. Nwaythazinaung says: December 3, at Jazakallah Nwaythazinaung. My name is Syed Fawaz Ahmed. Mir Azhar Ali says: December 17, at 2: January 15, at January 15, at 9: Without going into the details of the socio-political aspect of the Hindi-Urdu con- troversy, in this paper, I will only deal with the rationale behind bringing Hindi and Urdu into one course offering, and the pros and cons of such an academic approach and its justifications.
European and American Universities have been engaged in the study of classical India of antique times for centuries. With the rise of globalisation in the early nineties of the last century, India emerged as an eco- nomic powerhouse in an increasingly globalised world.
The significance of India in the world econ- omy began to be reflected in the world of academia too. Along with the classical India, the present day Indian South Asian society also started becoming a point of interest in academic circles.
The shift in academic interest towards modern India resulted in universities offering courses related to present day South Asian society.
Modern languages are usually the first to enter the catalogue of any area studies program. In the case of South Asia, Hindi, being the largest language, is more or less always the first modern language to be offered in South Asian Studies programmes. The rise of the popularity of Hindi in North American universities has been discussed in a detailed account by Bhatt Hindi has a sister language, Urdu, which is perceived to be mainly spoken by Muslims of urban North India and, later after the partition of India in , by a substantial part of the population in Pakistan.
Urdu has been installed as the national language of Pakistan, although it was not indige- nous anywhere in the geographical territory of present-day Pakistan. The mutual intelligibility of Urdu with the native languages of Pakistan varies to various degrees depending on the language. The statuses of Hindi and Urdu have raised polemics in almost all fields of human interaction in the society — mundane, academic, political, linguistic, and so forth.
Different sides have taken different positions on Hindi and Urdu — as one language or as two different languages or one language with two different varieties or two languages with a lot of commonalities.
There has been an abundance of literature written on, against and for all sides of the argument Bhatia, ; Brass, ; Khan, ; King, ; Lelyveld, ; Rai, , ; Rahman, and many more.
The scope of this paper is not the Hindu- Urdu controversy, rather the rationale behind teaching Hindi-Urdu as one foreign language in western universities. For that reason, I will not go deeper into the controversy, its complexities and ramifications, and will rather show differences and commonalities and, on the basis of them, I would analyse the justification of teaching Hindi and Urdu as Hindi-Urdu.
I will also discuss the challenges of teaching Hindi-Urdu together. In this section, I will mention common linguistic features of Hindi and Urdu, and also discuss the features that make them different from each other. Hindi is written in Devanagari and Urdu in Perso-Arabic script2. Devanagari is an indigenous script in South Asia, and Perso-Ara- bic script was established in India by the Muslim rule. As it happened with the Islamic conquest in other parts of the world, a new writing system, or script, is introduced to the local languages.
With the introduction of a new script to the already existing language, some orthographical compromises needed to be reached and the invention of new graphemes was also needed to represent phonemes present in the indigenous languages, but were not reflected in the introduced script. The new script had to adjust to the sound system and orthographical peculiar- ities of the spoken language.
Here are a few examples of adjustments the Perso-Arabic script had to make to properly denote the full range of phonetic representations of Khariboli sounds which Devanagari, the Hindi script, already had. The Perso-Arabic script has three short vowels: zabar a , zer i , pesh u , and a few semi vowels such as the short and long ye y sound and the vao v sound that can function as vowels to represent the vowel sounds of South Asian languages.
All the vowel sounds of the Khariboli are represented with the combination of short vowels and the semi-vowels. Although it is possible to precisely represent all the vowels, in practice, a grapheme can represent different sounds depending on the context. This Teaching Hindi and Urdu as Hindi-Urdu happens because short vowels in Urdu, as in many languages that use Perso-Arabic script, are rarely written. This unique feature of Perso-Arabic script, hence Urdu, makes indigenous words not represented precisely in written form, but people who know the language do not pronounce them incorrectly.
It is always replaced by a dental na4. This way, all indigenous sounds are represented and no compromise or contextual references were needed as in the case of 2. The Perso-Arabic script does not have individual graphemes to represent these sounds, but just like Roman transliteration, the Perso-Arabic script combines two letters to aspirate the plosive sounds.
Here too all the indigenous sounds get represen- tations and no compromise or contextual references were needed as in case of 2. Do different scripts make a language two languages? In the linguistic diversity of the world and history of lan- guages, often a language is written in more than one script. Merely different scripts are not enough to consider a language as different languages. For instance, the Serbian language has been written historically in both Cyrillic and Latin scripts, and the tradition of using two scripts still continues.
Many Indian languages have been simultaneously written in different scripts; Punjabi is written in Gurumukhi and Shahmukhi, and also sometimes in Devanagari. Konkani was written in more than three scripts for a long time until it was standardised in Devanagari. There have been instances in history where one same language is written in different scripts. Different scripts do not provide a sufficiently strong basis to classify a language as different languages.
Such pluralisation according to the rules comprises the majority of cases in Urdu. However, in the high register of the language, Urdu often uses Persian and Arabic words and pluralization that is not recognisable in Hindi. Some Perso-Arabised plurals are commonly used in Hindi with a semantic shift.
The legal vocabulary in Hindi is mostly drawn from Urdu. The legacy of the colonial judicial system, that solely used Urdu to conduct its business during colonial times, still remains in place. It is not uncommon to see court papers in Hindi loaded with many Urdu terms.
One can see the depic- tion of court scenes in the popular culture of Bollywood and television that truly represents the linguistic features of legal Hindi. This specific spelling rule applies mainly to non-indigenous South Asian words, but the scope of this spelling convention now includes indigenous words too. On the other hand, in oral Hindi and Urdu, such declensions are always uttered without failure.
Table 1. The overwhelming majority of possession in Urdu is expressed by these postpo- sitions, which are part of the common grammatical rules of Hindi and Urdu. However, there are constructions called Izafat, which also express possession, that is typical of Urdu and very rarely used in Hindi. In Urdu, they are more or less used as phrases. The presence of Izafat is very common in the high register of Urdu and can be often heard in political and religious discourses in television, radio and newspapers.
The Izafat in Hindi is rather rare and used only in phrases. Some occasional use of Izafat in Bollywood film titles, songs and dialogues can also be seen in Hindi. Although the common day-to-day language is very similar in Hindi and Urdu — in fact, it is not possible to Teaching Hindi and Urdu as Hindi-Urdu separate them at that level — but when it comes to the high register of political, philosophical, reli- gious discourses, the vocabularies diverge significantly.
Hindi draws its high register vocabulary from Sanskrit and Urdu from Persian and Arabic. A common example of use of such high register vocabulary would be the political discourses on televisions in India and Pakistan or newspapers in Hindi and Urdu.
A substantial part of the Sanskritised Hindi would be as incomprehensible to a native Urdu speaker as Persianised and Arabised Urdu to a speaker of Hindi who has had education and training in Hindi.
Below are the two examples, one each from Hindi and Urdu.
Urdu: An opening statement by a new talk show host. Captial Talk men khushamdid. Sabiqah vazir-e- azam Nawaz Sharif sahib ki taqriron ka ek jumla abhi tak zer-e-bahas hai5. Hindi: News headlines of the Day.
Do muthbher men char atanki dher. Mare ja- nevalon men jaish ka kukhyat atanki Khalid bhi shamil. Gujarat me liya chunav ayog ne taiyarion ka jayaza. Sabhi dalon ke pratinidhiyon se mulaqat6. In two encounters four terrorists killed.
Among dead terrorists is the infamous Khalid. The Election Commission oversees the preparation of elections meets with the representatives of all the parties.
The bolded words in the sentences belong to the high register of Urdu and Hindi respectively that are used in political discourses and are not easily intelligible to a common speaker of the other language. In the Urdu sentence, along with the Perso-Arabised vocabulary, there are two Izafat con- structions too; vazir-e-azam Prime Minister and zer-e-bahas under furious discussion. To conclude the section on differences between Hindi and Urdu, one can say without any hesi- tation that the differences between modern Hindi and Urdu arise only when the non-indigenous non-South Asian component influenced by the Islamic legacy of India is added to the contempo- rarily existing native language, whatever it may be — script, grammatical components pluralisation or genitive constructions or simply vocabulary.
On the other hand, the Sanskritised vocabulary is also similarly alien to a native Urdu speaker. While discussing the evolution of Urdu, Rehman also states that the language was also known as Hindavi and Dehalvi. The common ancestral variety of both Hindi and Urdu is also known to linguists as Khariboli. The further development of the language into Hindi and Urdu is the product of late 19th century politics.
Although the Perso-Arabic script was introduced to an in- digenous language which already had a script, it did not deal with the structural grammar or make any changes to it. The Perso-Arabic script needed to adjust to the sound system of the language, but it did not attempt to completely redefine the grammar, although some Perso-Arabic grammatical elements managed to get into the grammar of the language.
The distinctions that are mentioned above are rare and mainly used in the high register of both languages. For instance, pluralisation, as mentioned in 2. The spelling convention that are mentioned in 2. The oral representation of the language neutralises this distinction and declines the nouns as they would have been written in Hindi with proper declension.
In fact, in the majority of cases, even in Urdu and even in the written form, this type of declension follows the indigenous pattern. And Izafat 2. Here too the indigenous pattern overwhelmingly domi- nates in usage, both orally and in the written form. A native speaker of Hindi and a native speaker of Urdu would not need a third language to hold a conversation on any mundane topic. The vocabulary related to everyday life is similar to a very high extent and the grammar, as we explained in 2.
The biggest part of the differentiating vocabulary in Hindi and Urdu is represented in nouns and adjectives. The other types of words such as pronouns, postpositions, numbers, verbs, and so forth, are highly similar. It is no surprise that the higher registers of Hindi and Urdu mainly comprise the differentiating nouns and adjectives, whereas the rest of the words in the sentences remain the same.
This course discusses various language conflicts and issues from South Asia. The major body of the students in the course are from India and Pakistan, who know Hindi and Urdu as mother tongues.
I did not restrict them to any topic, and they could choose any sentences they wanted. As expected, they chose very common sentences from everyday life.
Then, I asked the students who knew Hindi to translate these 6 sentences into Hindi, and I asked the same of the Urdu speaking students.
As I expected, the translation to both Hindi and Urdu were exactly the same.
Although this was not a scientific experiment, it is representative of the common perception of extreme closeness of the two languages. These cultural elements are independent of any religious affiliations, for example, folk songs and dances, folktales, some wedding rituals, some common attire, some festivals such as the kite flying festival of Basant Panchami. The modern pop culture is in fact outright independent of any religious affiliation as so forth any Hindi or Urdu affiliation.
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The popular culture of Bollywood is equally claimed by both Hindi and Urdu speakers, and is used in Hindi-Urdu as a foreign language classrooms.
As there has been a lot of research on incorporating cultural elements in foreign language classes, Hindi and Urdu both can, to a great extent, utilise the same material for teaching the cultural com- ponent of Hindi-Urdu.
The cultural component of honorifics that are represented in pronouns in Hindi-Urdu are pre- cisely the same in both languages.
They are used similarly in when people are speaking Hindi and Urdu. Hindi-Urdu The rise in interest in South Asian studies in academia in western universities corresponds to the rise in the number of South Asian language courses. Most of the universities started teaching Hindi as the first modern South Asian language. More and more universities in fact started teaching Hindi and Urdu both as one foreign language of Hindi-Urdu.
A variety of reasons social, political, academic, emotional, financial etc. One of the main reasons the South Asian academic world likes to cite for offering Hindi-Urdu as one foreign language is the idea that Hindi and Urdu are not two different languages, but just one single language with two different varieties. The wider context behind such a statement consists in the common ties between Hindus and Muslims — mainly cultural, but also historical.
This ideological stance in academia is mainly driven more by the sense of a culturally common South Asian com- munity, in contrast to Hindu and Muslim communities, back home in India and Pakistan, as well as in diaspora. There are also very strong linguistic grounds to back their statement of Hindi and Urdu being one single language with two different varieties.
Until the partition of India and a few decades later, Hindi and Urdu literatures were not clearly distinguished from one another. Many writers were claimed by both languages and their respective language speakers. Their writings were published in both Devanagari and Nastaliq, with a little bit of editing to make them comprehensible for the respective readers. In fact, most native readers would not know if a particular author was a Hindi or Urdu one.
Scholars who study other aspects of South Asia would certainly find knowledge of both lan- guages handy for their field work. For example, most of the texts of the religious Bhakti movements can be found in Devanagari script.
At the same time, most of the archived documents are in Urdu because of the fact that the lower level bureaucracy of Colonial India was conducted in Urdu. For anyone to study modern South Asia, especially the colonial times, the knowledge of both Hindi and Urdu is indispensable. There are other practical reasons for this merger. And it can be used to make a sales pitch to a bigger clientele.
The merger can make students interested in both Hindi and Urdu together. On the other side of the merger, one cannot be careful enough not to alienate potential students who are interested in only one of the two languages.
It is not inconceivable that a student may have a personal or familial inclination toward a particular language, Hindi or Urdu, and may reject the other. So far, in my personal experience of teaching Hindi-Urdu in the University of Toronto Mississauga, I have found that students are more attracted, than reluctant, to take the course. There has not been much research done specifically on the patterns of enrollment in Hindi, Urdu or Hindi-Urdu. The data from the two years covered in the survey and give an interesting picture of the choices students made in taking one of the three options: Hindi, Urdu and Hindi-Urdu see Table 2.
Table 2. Even Hindi-Urdu seems to be more attractive to students than Urdu alone. From the limited data, one can conclude that the merger of Hindi and Urdu to Hindi-Urdu is mainly based on ideological grounds, as it is clearly seen that the merger does not bring increased enrollments; rather, the enrollment is substantially less in Hindi-Urdu.
The merger is also done with the aim of equipping future scholars with maximum linguistic skills to work on medieval and pre- independence India. Although the merger does numerically expand the size of the body of native speakers, it is not reflected in the classes of Hindi-Urdu as a foreign language. There has not been a standard approach in this regard.
As many top universities teach Hindi-Urdu in a single course, here I will survey their teaching ap- proaches. Since there has not been any research done on teaching approaches used by various uni- versities, I base the following part of the article on my personal communications with the professors of some North American Universities where Hindi-Urdu is taught.
The students are taught Devanagari Hindi script first and later, once they are fairly comfortable with Devanagari, Nastaliq Urdu script is gradually introduced. The time of introduction of Nastaliq also varies in universities.
The most common approach is to introduce Nastaliq in the middle of the first semester, which is usually the 6th or 7th week. Some universities start Urdu in the second semester. In some universities, Urdu is introduced as a small component of the course and is not given equal amount of time and grade points. The rationale behind this approach lies in the level of difficulty of the scripts.
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Devanagari is a comparatively easier script and more precise for the language Hindi-Urdu. It also is more intuitive R. Delacy, personal email communication, July 30, compared with the Urdu script.
The lan- guage and its sound system, that is, the wide range of vowel and consonantal sounds, can be more precisely represented in Devanagari script. As we have seen in 2.Rahman, T. The legal vocabulary in Hindi is mostly drawn from Urdu. And it can be used to make a sales pitch to a bigger clientele. Ramaiah Institute of Technology You can reach me at syedfawaz gmail.
January 8, at It has great content and is very easy to use. As I expected, the translation to both Hindi and Urdu were exactly the same. Nwaythazinaung says: Please make dua that it finishes fast. July 23, at 3: